Bogdan Sedler, Dr. Eng.
Jerzy Aftanas, MSc Eng.
THE STRATEGY OF A REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
ON THE BASIS
OF POMERANIAN VOIVODSHIP,
FROM THE POINT OF
VIEW OF A POLITICAL SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION IN POLAND
THE STRATEGY OF A REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
ON THE BASIS OF POMERANIAN VOIVODSHIP,
FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF A POLITICAL SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION IN POLAND
Up to now, domestic and European experiences have proved the legitimacy of a continuos study over developmental strategies on any scale: from European up to the local one. They also confirm a methodical assumption, which was empirically and repeatedly formulated, that they might enable efficient realization of the strategy. The step-by-step implementation of this strategy through subsequent enterprises leads to a process of development shaping, according to strategic goals and the mission.
In the presence of a variability of developmental conditions, and uncertainty of the most probable future, there is no better method of development shaping than continuos monitoring of the changes.
Other methods include diagnosis, forecasting and planning of the transformation as the basis for strategic steering in desired directions.
This is the only way to make the strategies an efficient tool of management, fulfil their role in development shaping according to long-term targets and society aspirations, link them interdependently with short- and long-term goals, creating logic and least problematic process of developmental balancing.
Outgoing from this superior assumption, which was confirmed by many-year experience gained in the European Union, Poland implies a strategic development system through providing continuity in planning of strategic development of the country. As the result, there are present strategic studies over processes of economical development and spatial development of the country.
The studies, according to the legislation (act about spatial development from the 7th of July 1994), can become a basis for a conception of the studies over voivodship spatial development and also studies over conditions and directions in spatial development ofcommunes. Local plans of spatial development will become a practical and useful tool in management.
In the system of planistic enterprises that have been foreseen by the legislation, the most important roles are played by strategies of social and economical development of voivodships. They have been elaborated interdependently with the studies over voivodships spatial development.
If the strategies that designate conditions, strategic goals and directions of development are not elaborated, it is impossible to formulate the conception of voivodship spatial development.
Assuming the legitimacy of keeping the continuity in strategic, diagnostical and conceptional studies as a basic tool of strategic management of development, there was conducted a research that was tending towards the following: (1) Assessment in terms of conformability between conditions and strategic goals of country development strategies, (2) Designation of main directions in further research.
that would sum up the research are comprised in a presented article, and make a
methodological and organizational basis for the studies continuation over the
strategy of Pomeranian Voivodship development, according to assumption about
I. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES CREATION
THE ESSENCE OF THE PROBLEM
Processes taking place in Poland during political system transformation, have created conditions of new quality as well as concepts and problems connected with developmental management. Their specific context is strategic spatial development, formed in the countries with highly developed market economy and civil society.
The main reasons why science and practice became interested in this sphere of management, are empirically documented assumptions saying that:
New realities and necessity in this scope designate four main megatrends, which organize the society, economy and nation development. These are:
SPATIAL (REGIONAL) ECONOMY AS A TOOL OF MANAGEMENT
The basis of its functioning as a separate sphere of practical action of human, is an empirically confirmed interdependence, which say that:
Each social and economical action of a human is made in a defined geographical area, which main elements are:
The mechanism of interaction, which has been launched in this way, initiate self-regulating (self-controlling) process, that the society should take into account in their actions (Fig. 1). These processes confirm increasing significance of spatial conditions in development shaping as they take place in differentiated geographical area. The heterogenic character of the latter one has an impact on differentiation of spatial conditions of development, and also the structure and level of fulfilling social needs.
The scope in which this development mechanism is functioning is spatial development. This term describes the whole sphere of practical action of society, in which differentiation of geographical area and distance overcoming plays a decisive and motivating role.
Extending the above definition it can be stated that spatial development is one of the spheres or one of the aspects of national economy. It constitutes its sub-system defined by changing with time legislation and also tradition and consciousness of society. Its integral part is regional economy and regional development policy.
This sub-system is functioning in a material sphere as well as in a regulation sphere (Fig 1).
In the material sphere, the system is expressed by transformation processes and material states of spatial development, and also connected with the latter ones spatial organization of society, economy and the country.
In the regulation sphere, the system is made by the whole human action that tends towards realization of developmental goals (social, economical, ecological, and cultural) and is based on a use of features and advantages of geographical area.
From the logic of spatial development functioning results that experience of real mechanisms of space transformation is a condition of their voluntary regulation that influences further course of the process. This statement means that:
In the situation of a new political system in a unitary, decentralized country, the decisive center creates and realizes this sphere of the policy that cannot be practiced at the regional and local level.
Interpreting this formula it should be underlined that:
Synergistic interdependence of social & economical development and transformations of spatial development, evidence the rightness of interaction in creation of these two spheres of developmental process. Moreover, their continuous impact on environment commands an introduction of ecological conditions into a process of creation of space transformation.
One of the most significant instruments used to solve new in quality problematic situations that are at a high level in terms of complexity, may become once again the system of strategic planning.
According to a real interdependence of a development, the system should be composed of:
By these means, in the process of functioning of strategic planning system the creation of problematic structure would take place. The latter one would define holistic and interdisciplinary character of the system: condition that should be fulfilled in solution of problems of increasingly complex reality.
In the process of functioning of the system, there would take place a creation of conception (intellectual) structure of a higher order, in which mutual feedback between different aspects of development (social, ecological, economical, and spatial) would enable research, forecasting and modeling of the future through definition of development strategies.
The method of iteration, which has been hitherto applied in Polish and European planning, enables performance of methodologically arranged and mutually connected correction of solutions. This depends on results obtained in the process of creation of spheres of social & economical development as well as spatial management and forecasted changes in an ecological situation. Its essence may be presented by the following rules:
In the past, this rule was often identified with so called “ entirety” of social & economical development and spatial management. This development has been presented in terms of a division and branch and its programs were a direct sum of sector programs. In such situation the strategies would lose their creative role in formation of subject action in terms of social rationality. They were overcharged with apparent detailed solutions and excess in irrelevant information. Such a method of creation of more and more complex reality is of no use. The new conception of complexity could be synthetically presented in a form of the following assumptions:
It results from the essence of the expression that each strategy would have its own “scope of complexity”, which should be individually identified. Its definition should be based upon a choice of a problematic structure of the strategy (the problems, their solution, connections between them and etc.) and also upon a choice of the level of interdisciplinary complexity (the range of relatively autonomic problems, interdependent ones).
These choices can be made during a process of elaboration of the following
generation of strategies. Then it would be a derivative of a certain social
& economical situation in the country, internal conditions and possibilities
of workshop planning and external conditions – global and European ones.
THE CONCEPTION OF CONTINUITY AND FLEXIBILITY IN FORMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT
Wide scope of uncertainty in forecasting of social and economical conditions and formation of spatial management, indicates that there should be conducted a continuous, flexible spatial and ecological policy that would be interdependent with social and economical policy. The rule of continuity of this process would mean the functioning of the system of regulation (Fig 2) through parallel:
It would be a parallel (and sometimes simultaneous) process of the strategy formation as well as programming of its strategically significant enterprises and undertaking strategic and operational decisions. Only in the process of informative & decisive game, there would appear a solution of conflict situations connected with discrepancy of subjects’ affairs. Their main source is inefficient supply of the space having defined features, qualities and resources in proportion to demand for this space. This demand would be a resultant of the necessity of fulfilling of certain social needs in certain spatial situations or competition of the value. (Fig.2).
The formula of open, continuous forecasting and designing of the future could become a useful, pragmatic toll for development regulation in a situation, in which:
organizational conditions of such strategies would depend on the fact whether
the future model of regime is going to tend towards representative democracy
(parliamentary, local authorities) and social market economy and also the legal
and institutional basis of the process of integration with Europe.
THE CONCEPTION OF REGIONAL POLICY FORMATION GENERATING SPATIALLY DIFFERENTIATED SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL ACTIVITIES
The forecast of spatially differentiated problematic situation in the process of transformation indicates that there are two principles that could become a basis of a regional policy. The first one would be the principle of polarization in the “ poles of growth” of social & economical activity and would generate development of neighboring regions. The second one would be the principle of selective activation of areas of “depression and backwardness” with the use of external means. (Fig 3)
Formation of a regional policy ought to take place interdependent and parallel way, on national and regional scale as an integral link in the national policy.
Its major tool, in conditions of increasing complexity of development and interdependency of transformations of spatial management and social & economical development as well as changes taking place in environment, should be long-term strategies that would define conceptions of integrated regional policy. Such conceptions should take into account connections that are present between social & economical policy as well as spatial and ecological one.
Wide scope of
uncertainty during forecasting of conditions of social & economical
development and transformations of spatial management indicates rightness of its
creation in the process of continuous, open and flexible system of forecasting
and design of the future. (Fig 2).
Considering hypothetical process of transformation of Polish political system it appears that it is sound to practice regional policy as (Fig 4):
In this system, self-government subjective of regional and local policy would have a potential opportunity to solve contradictions, conflicts of affairs and aspiration that would be brought to light in the process of development. It would indicate acceptance of a negotiation formula of being in authority, so essential for functioning of a democratic country. Its essence would be reaching social consensus, which would minimize conflict situations.
The substance of a regional policy, being realized in the first period of a system transformation, is an intervention policy of the nation.
As the crisis situations get under control strategic, long-term universal targets of national policy should form the bearing construction of regional policy. Their regional stratification would depend on spatially differentiated conditions of development. As it results from the diagnosis, their significance will increase with the rise in complexity of spatial structures. Therefore, interregional policy should be a function of differentiated in space targets of social & economical, spatial and ecological policy of a country. Being strategic and long-term in its character, the policy should ensure compactness and continuity of country development in geographically differentiated area.
Relations that occur between social & economical targets and ecological ones bring a new situation in this scope to life.
It results from a real integrity of development that they cannot be solved being separated from the entirety of a social policy as well as economical and spatial one.
The most substantial method of generation of means in a market economy is to induce the demand for resources and to form conditions for effective management.
In this scope, regional policy has to accomplish two essential tasks that would be connected with a high differentiation of conditions for economical development of a country:
The character of a regional planning would be induced by strategies of an interregional development and their interregional relations, which form a substance of interregional policy of a country. Only such an integral attitude may enable harmonization of all targets, linking targets and means, investigation and creation of reality in all basic aspects (social, ecological, economical, spatial and even technical and technological) as well as time horizons adjusted to real needs of rationalization of various fields of development.
It denotes that in a regional planning all tasks would be focused on:
Various contradictions and conflicts between targets of the nation policy,
affairs of territorial governments representing local (regional) matters and
partial affairs of managing subjects as well as necessity for their interaction
should define one of the most significant function of the regional policy and
regional planning. This function is a negotiating one. On one hand, its essence
is minimization or removal of contradictions and conflict situations occurring
in the process of development and elaboration of consensus solutions whereas on
the other hand the function substantial role would be creation of conditions
suitable for co-operation of all economical subjects and the public authority.
Derivative of the negotiating function would be and an information function,
which would enable a common access to knowledge, related to internal and
external conditions of a region development, potentially possible scopes of
solution choice and criteria and targets of a local, regional and whole national
Efficiency of a regional policy will in great part depend on organization of a territorial system tending towards a decentralized democratic country.
The legitimacy of this correlation is indicated by a real differentiation of a Polish space, in which a creation of real processes of social & economical development occurs irrespective of their spatial distribution (Fig. 3)
It is impossible to have a real decentralization of a country functioning without making a regional level subjective. Without it, a regional policy would sink in an excess of locality or in centralization.
Therefore, the key to an increase in its efficiency would be a
reorganization of a territorial system of the country performed in such a way
that a policy of a regional development could become an self-dependent in a
subjective sense (however, interdependent of the country policy) tool in
creation of a Polish space in an open European system
(Fig. 4 and 5).
The reforms at the regional level that were performed through enforcing and subjecting of a local government, were necessary in a political transformation taking place in Poland. It was the only way to decentralize the country system and the regime.
Referring the above principals to a reformed regime of a country, the emphasis should be laid on:
Fig. Fig5. NEW TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION OF THE COUNTRY
II. THE RESEARCH OVER THE NEW STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT FOR POMERANIAN VOIVODSHIP.
After a few-year period (1989-1992) of negating social needs and even theoretical legitimacy for this kind of research, resumption to these studies is a first and very significant step on the way towards normality. This renewal was performed According to a new law established in Polished legislation between 1993 and 1995, and to a practice of European Union countries. Legitimacy of this planning enterprise in new developmental conditions of Gdañsk voivodship cannot be discussed in the presence of:
Systemic undertaking of targets enables creation of social, ecological and economical order together with spatial order. Therefore, it expresses aspirations for creation of a general, integrated order of developmental processes according to the following criteria:
In the presence of a slow changeability and long duration of the country structural transformations and necessary flexibility and long-term development strategies, the system of developmental targets should become a stabilizing and putting in order basis for the country policy in the presence of an open and unpredictable future.
They are related to main challenges and problems of transformation of Polish and European as well as social & economical space of the XXI century, taking into account high amplitude of situational changes.
The major motive in a choice of strategic targets that create the country and region developmental strategy is a historical necessity and their chance for imparting of dynamism and achievement of European life standards of the society through the rise in competitiveness of the national economy in an open world system.
stratification of the strategic targets, according to spatially and
problematically differentiated reality, and also criteria for creation of
spatial development of the country, region and municipal communities, should
become a useful tool of functioning of the balanced development policy in
the whole system of creation and realization of the country policy (table no.
according to conception of spatial development policy of the country adopted by the Polish Assembly on the 14th of November 1996.
|1. Formation of mechanisms generating effective social & economical development.||1.1. Development of international transport connections making the marine & harbor (Gdañsk-Gdynia) junction more effective in its functioning ( highway A-1, seafaring, Via Hanseatica, trunk-line TER, Rêbiechowo airport , harbor infrastructure)|
|.||1.2. Active creation of
Euro-region of South – East Baltic sea, which would include Southern
Sweden, Eastern Pomerania, Lithuanian region of Memel river and
1.3. Acceleration in structural changes and privatization of marine economy as well as aid for new initiatives and gain of capital from abroad, which would make the economical potential of the region more competitive.
1.4. Promotion of European, tourist products of the region, including offers that would bring incomes from tourism during all seasons.
1.5. Development acceleration of a science, innovation and technical & economical development center of Gdañsk
1.6. Gain of a European metropolis (europol) and the center of a southeast Baltic Sea region by Threecity through a close co-operation of Gdañsk, Gdynia and Sopot.
|2. Improvement in a civilization standard of the society||Preparation -with a
co-operation with trade unions – of labor market institution in
structural changes of industry. Counteraction to social threats,
especially in the Tczew region.
2.2. Rise in
upkeep sources for rural population by creation of new working places in
the residence region and broadening of non-agricultural functions of rural
according to conception of spatial development policy of the country adopted by the Polish Assembly on the 14th of November 1996.
|2. Improvement in a civilization standard of the society||2 3. Overcome of a
financial crisis of the health service as a condition for improvement of a
health for of the habitants, especially action against civilization
2.4. Development and rationalization of education at the over primary stage in the voivodship and activation of scientific centers in the Threecity.
2.5. Integration of a transport system in Threecity as well as overcome of “narrow passages” in agglomerations.
|3. Protection and rational creation of the environment.||3.1. Elimination of ecological threats in the region of Gdañsk with Agenda 21 project, and bringing the Gulf of Gdañsk to such a state that it would be possible to use it for recreation.|
|4. Protection of the cultural heritage of the nation.||4.1. Construction of cultural identity of the region of Gdañsk with the use of marine traditions and cultural values of Kashubia and Kociewie.|
|5. Improvement of defensive ability of the country and safety of the citizens||5.1. Improvement in the
feeling of safety of the citizens through participation of municipal
communities and local communities in the protection of
5.2. Improvement of the feeling of safety of the citizens connected with disasters and threats by social pathologies.
|6. Creation of a spatial order through developmental balance and spatial development of the country.||6.1. Formation of a metropolitan region –functional and spatial structure that would be efficient and compact and would bind Threecity with its natural subsidiaries on the local, regional, European and global scale.|
III. THE PROPOSAL OF THE STRATEGY REALISATION MONITORING
Formulating proposals, which deal with the Gdañsk voivodship development strategy, there was accepted assumption that the voivodship is a social & economical system. This system is functioning in certain conditions of the surrounding and internal limitations, and its developmental rate depends on accuracy of the choice and constant realization of strategic targets. The system undergoes normal conditioning of a competitive market. Such an attitude makes one aware of the fact that all of the projects that refer to strategic development of the region must be related to reality. Therefore, any concepts of development that do not posses substantial solutions for their realization are of little use. Elaborating the strategy of action (in this case the developmental strategy for Gdañsk voivodship), which is a certain, general program of functioning and development of the region, there ought to be designated its mission, goals and tasks. Tasks in the planning process undergo gradation, and tasks of the first order should become targets for the tasks of the second order. Such a hierarchical order of goals and tasks is illustrated by so called “pyramid of goals”, which is presented below.
TASKS OF THE FIRST
TASKS OF THE SECOND
Strategic program for a development of a region, elaborated according to general principles of strategic planning, should contain:
THE PROPOSAL OF THE VOIVODSHIP STRATEGY FORMULATION
Proposed formula of voivodship mission means that widely understood marine economy & international trade, industry using modern technologies and tourism will become pillars that will carry the future development of the voivodship. The choice of marine economy and international trade as one of the developmental pillars of the region results from its geographical location and historical conditions. The necessity of development of “high technology” industry is a resultant of the world economical and civilization trends. Big chance for this region is direction of its development towards electronic industry and other spheres of production and service, with which it will be possible to transfer the most advanced technologies to the region. Such investments will make a great opportunity to get familiar the latest methods of production, management, as well as a big chance for a widely understood science and better use of voivodship potential in this field.
The next of proposed pillars of the regional development is tourism.
This choice is a consequence of the region location and its tourist values. Apart form the seaside region, which is a very important attraction, there still should be kept in mind tourist values of Kashubia, which are a leisure place in the summer and to some extend in the winter. Certainly, tourism will not become an electromotive force for this region without complex solutions for some serious ecological problems and other limitations (like transport, accommodations and etc.)
Region directing towards international trade, advanced industry and tourism does not exclude other fields (sectors), which are important for efficient functioning of the whole social and economical organism, from analysis and programming.
After selection of strategic sectors it is crucial to analyze them in terms of their opportunities and threats, as well as their profitability and advanced structural changes. They should also be compared to Western European solutions. Intellectual and organizational effort should be directed towards those issues that did not undergo transformation. (Fig.7). There was presented general principles of creation, realization and actualization of voivodship developmental strategies. (Fig.7)
In the process of the formulation of assumption for the regional policy there should be performed a kind of theme selection at different levels, according to adopted regional priorities, with no preference towards any sphere. Lack of sufficient investments in the “regional organism”, field of action which was rather unappreciated until now (i.e., telecommunication), can results in dramatic consequences, difficult to assess in times of social transformations, and technological development.
The region of Gdañsk possesses its own specifics, which determines the choice of priorities. It seems quite obvious that crucial sectors should consist of:
In consequence of digital technology development, there is observed a rise in use of simulating programs in a design of technical and economical systems. Although, application of modeling and digital simulation is a complex task in the process of a strategic planning, it is used more often. The simplest model of simulation would be a connection of particular sectors and tasks through a simple, empirical dependencies, and results and expenditures assessment in the first approximation. For instance, extension of a harbor has an influence on the infrastructure, and also on the uptake of energy and water carriers, on the environment. More over, it is related with the structure of employment, housing, education, and etc. There are dozens and hundreds of consequences, which are difficult to assess in a conventional way.
The simulation model might enable generating of variants of the region’s strategic plan in relation to changing conditions and results of monitoring and hypothetical scenarios. The obtained will be only rough results, which is still better than lack of any results.
There should be performed an attempt at classification of the most significant issues in the theme groups and their correlation prior to beginning of the studies over a construction of the simulation model. Then, all estimated expenditures and effects and derivatives of particular tasks should be defined in time.
procedure will make it possible to select the most significant tasks and so
called Flagship Projects, for which there ought to be elaborated
Feasibility Studies and Technical & Economical Analysis. The
latter will be a basis for so-called Voivodship’s Offer.
CREATION AND MONITORING STAGES OF THE VOIVODSHIP’S STRATEGY REALISATION
The process of creation and control of voivodship’s strategy realization can be divided into four stages that are characterized by specific procedures. They were marked on the attached scheme, and they include the following scopes of action:
1st Stage – Formulation of the mission and strategic goals
2nd Stage – Segmentation of strategic sectors and tasks formulation (partial goals of the 2nd order)
3rd Stage - Construction of the strategic planof the voivodship (business plans in variants)
4th Stage – Realization of the strategic plan, monitoring and current correction of the plan According to principles of a general strategic planning, all elements of particular stages of voivodship strategy ought to be compact, interdependent and take into account the feedback that make the planning continuous.
In the presented model of strategic construction, there was applied the method of hierarchic order of goals, targets and enterprises.
The tools of the strategic plan realization are operational plans, which contain:
THE NEW STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT
FOR POMERANIAN VOIVODSHIP...............................................................................................................15
III. THE PROPOSAL OF
THE STRATEGY REALISATION
The proposal of the voivodship’s strategy formulation......................................................................................20
Creation and monitoring stages of the voivodship’s strategy realization...........................................................23